Switch Mode Power Supply : Working and Application

Switch Mode Power Supply : Working and Application

What is Switch Mode Power Supply There are many types of Switch Mode Power Supply which we can see in different Applications. But how to define it ? The Switch Mode Power Supply is a device which converts the AC or DC voltage into a regulated DC voltage. In the above block diagram we can very easily understand the basic working of Switch Mode Power Supply. You can see many other block representation but the above is the most basic diagram which illustrates the general working of SMPS. There are four main components in Switch Mode Power Supply which are, Rectifier Electronic Switch PWM Generator Filter The Rectifier in SMPS is a full wave rectifier which converts the AC voltage…
Difference Between Microprocessor and Microcontroller : You must know

Difference Between Microprocessor and Microcontroller : You must know

Microprocessor vs Microcontroller There has been a great misunderstanding in difference between Microprocessor and Microcontroller since both the IC are designed for Real life use. The Microprocessor and Microcontroller chips do share many common features although they have very important differences. However, The difference between Microprocessor and Microcontroller can not be simply distinguished by just looking at them. The both ic's are available in numerous type of packages starting from 6 pins to a large number of pins (Depends upon its features). The number of people (who are new in embedded system) are not very much aware of the difference between microprocessor and microcontroller and mostly they end up considering both of these as the same thing.   In 1971 world's first…
List of PCB Design Software (Free and Paid)

List of PCB Design Software (Free and Paid)

PCB Design Software If you very often develop electronic products, then you may need to develop the PCB that is Printed Circuit Boards. Since, creating PCB of a circuit reduces very much space as well as cost the pcb design software is used by both professionals and small designers. If you are looking for the best free pcb design software or a platform, then we have come up with various paid as well as free pcb design software list. As per their functions and features specified you can very easily define that which PCB designing software best fits your needs the most. There are paid as well as free software available which provides various features some of them even provide unique…
Inductors in Series Explained in Detail

Inductors in Series Explained in Detail

Inductors in Series Before starting off, you all must be aware with the term inductors, but do you know the actual meaning of it? Inductor is a simple coil which does the function of storing energy in the magnetic field. So, it is mainly inductance of the inductor which matters to us. The voltage across the indicator and current going through the inductor is 90 degree out of phase; that’s why the current is led by 90 degrees by the voltage of the inductor. Inductors can be connected in series or parallel or they can even be connected in the combination of both parallel and series. Here, in this article we will focus on inductors in series. A complex network…
LED Driver Circuit Working and Applications

LED Driver Circuit Working and Applications

LED driver circuit There would be hardly anyone who would not be aware with the term LED. It is used as an optoelectronic device and is a special type of diode. These LEDs which are considered to be the future of lights basically works on a LED driver circuit. These tiny little circuits can illuminate a lot of area. The led driver circuit design is very simple and have the PN junction diode as the one of the major component. And, the best part about these circuits is that they are very less power consuming circuit and yet they produce much better illumination in the Power LEDs. Principle of LED driver circuit LEDs have become so common in such a…
Open Loop System

Open Loop System

Open Loop System Open loop system are the ones in which the variable to control the system is not the output produced by it. In these systems, the output is calculated using the input variables which are based on the open loop transfer function of the system. They are easy to use and have simple functioning. A control system is a group of interconnected electronic devices where each system has its own input and output relation for controlling the output of another connected system. There are two types of control systems. Open loop system Closed loop system Open loop system is also known as non-feedback system because here output has no effect or influence on the input signal’s action. So,…
Full Wave Bridge Rectifier Circuit Working and Application

Full Wave Bridge Rectifier Circuit Working and Application

How to make Full Wave Rectifier     Full Wave Bridge Rectifier Circuit The Full Wave Bridge Rectifier Circuit is a combination of four diodes connected in the form of diamond or a bridge as shown in the circuit. However, The full wave rectifier circuit does rectifies the AC voltage into DC voltage. But, The pulse character is still intact in the converted/rectified dc Voltage in the form of ripple of a half pulse as shown in the wave form below. In order to get rid of the remaining positive pulse in the obtained DC Voltage you must use a filter circuit or a capacitor which reduces the repel and brings our dc voltage wave form to straight line. Note…
Wheatstone Bridge Circuit Working Principle and Application

Wheatstone Bridge Circuit Working Principle and Application

Wheatstone Bridge Wheatstone bridge is the circuit setup made up of four resistances as shown in the figure which is generally used to find out the unknown resistance. Wheatstone bridge experiment was first conducted by Samuel Hunter Christie in the year 1833.  The concept of wheatstone bridge was introduced in order to measure the unknown resistance with the help of two known and one variable resistance. However, The circuit has much broad and important applications such as measuring the intensity of light and many other quantities. Principle of Wheatstone bridge experiment According to the wheatstone bridge principle if the ratio of the two resistance (R1/R3) on the one edge is equal to the ratio of the two resistance (R4/R2) in another edge…
PNP Transistor Working and Application [Explained]

PNP Transistor Working and Application [Explained]

PNP Transistor PNP transistor is the types of bipolar junction transistor. In PNP transistor, PNP stands for Positive-Negative-Positive configuration. So, basically in this type of transistor two p-type (positive) materials dope a single n-type (positive) material and the PNP configuration is established, and it is referred to as a PNP transistor. It is a device which is controlled by current. There are different types of transistors, for example NPN transistor is also an example of Bipolar Junction Transistor (BPT). Components of a PNP Transistor It is an device in which two p-regions together sandwich one n-region and gives us two pn junctions. The PNP transistor is divided into three distinct regions that are p-type, n-type and p-type. And, the two…
NPN Transistor Working and Application [Explained]

NPN Transistor Working and Application [Explained]

NPN transistor Bipolar junction transistors are of two types mainly. NPN transistor is one of the types of Transistors (BPT). NPN stands for Negative-Positive-Negative configuration. It is the most often used in all  type of transistors. Basically, in NPN transistors, two n-type (negative) materials dope the single p-type (negative) materials. In simple words, one p-type semiconductor material is present between the two n-type semiconductor materials. They are the most used type of bipolar junction transistors and the reason behind this is the mobility of their electrons is many times higher than that of the holes (mobility of holes). Components in NPN Transistor This transistor is made of three components or three main regions. Emitter Base Collector The two regions are…
Half Wave Rectifier [Explained] in Detail

Half Wave Rectifier [Explained] in Detail

Half Wave Rectifier Half wave rectifier is a simple circuit which is basically used for converting an AC voltage to the DC voltage. It is a simple diode or a group of diodes which converts AC (Alternating Current) voltage into DC (Direct Current). It is used in end number of electronic devices. Principle of Half Wave Rectifier The half wave rectifier circuit is a diode. And, a diode works and allows current in only one direction and blocks it in another one. So, the basic principle on which rectifier works and are constructed is the working of a diode only. If a circuit, contains group of diodes then the proper arrangement of all the diodes is must. The simplest known…
Arduino Motor Control Explained in Detail

Arduino Motor Control Explained in Detail

Arduino Motor Control If you are into electronics, then you must have heard about the arduino board. Arduino boards are in many types but the most popular one is known as Arduino Uno. There are number of simple application of the board you will find such as LED Blinker, Arduino motor control and many more which can easily be made through the Uno board. In Motor control application by arduino, you will find number DC motors everywhere like toys, fans, tools etc. And, the torque of these DC motors is based on their physical specifications. The Arduino motor control uses DC motors which changes the direction as we change the direction of dc current which can be done easily with…
D Flip Flop [Explained] in detail

D Flip Flop [Explained] in detail

D flip flop D flip flop is one of the types in flip flops. It is very widely used in real world applications and many refer it as delay or data flip flop also. What are Flip flop Flip flop is one thing that you will definitely come across while studying Digital electronics. Flip flop is also called as latch and its main use is in the field of electronics. It is actually a kind of circuit with 2 stable states and the main usage of such a component is for storage of state related information. Its main property is that of being bi stable and having multi behavior. It is used in sequential logical arrangements such as in computers,…
T flip flop working [Explained] in detail

T flip flop working [Explained] in detail

T Flip Flop T flip flop are one of the sequential circuits. The ‘T’ in the T Flip flop stands for toggle, so it is also known as Toggle Flip flop or T flip flop. This type of circuits has only one input unit, unlike SR flip flop and JK flip flop. The input unit of T flip flop is referred to as Trigger unit or the Toggle input unit. What is toggling in T flip flop ? Toggle means switching or moving from one state to another using a toggle action. This movement which is known as toggle action is a fast movement due to the presence of toggles in it. So, basically when the circuit changes its state…
JK Flip Flop [Explained] in Detail

JK Flip Flop [Explained] in Detail

JK flip flop This type of flip flops was invented by a Texas instrument engineer, Jack Kilby. He is the scientist who has invented the first integrated circuit. So, the ‘JK’ in JK flip flop circuit came from the name of the scientist who invented it that is ‘Jack Kilby’. It also has two input units like other sequential circuits. The set input of JK flip flop circuit is known as ‘J’ and the reset input of it is known as ‘K’ input. There are many flip-flops design which are currently being used, but the most common one which is widely used is JK flip flop circuit. It is also a sequential circuit. JK flip flop circuit can also be…
SR flip flop explained in detail

SR flip flop explained in detail

How to make SR Flip Flop     SR flip flop In SR flip flop, S stands for ‘set input’ and R stands for ‘reset input’. It is basically a simple arrangement of logic gates that is used to maintain a stable output even if the inputs are switched off. It is also referred to as a SR Latch, because it is one of the most important and simple sequential logic circuits possible. What are flip flop? Flip flop are also known as a latch. This term lies in the study of electronics. It is a circuit which has two stable states that is why it is also called a bistable multivibrator. This circuit is also used to store the…
Types of Capacitors and Applications

Types of Capacitors and Applications

Capacitor Concept Before getting knowledge about the types of capacitors, firstly, my dear reader, all you need to understand about a capacitor and how does it works. A capacitor or you can say that, an electronic capacitor is one of the most widely used electronic components. It is made by combining two metallic plates. Between these two plates, there will be the use of dielectric material so that an electric field can be easily generated by applying voltage over the plates. Both plates can be recognized on the basis of the charge they hold and charge can be positive or negative. In present scenario, an electronic capacitor comes in several styles, forms, girths, length and material in order to perform…
Servo controlled voltage stabilizer and its Advantage

Servo controlled voltage stabilizer and its Advantage

What is Servo controlled voltage stabilizer The Servo controlled voltage stabilizer works on the concept that a powerful motor driven auto transformer along with a boots transformer is connected between load and incoming supply of power. The control circuit tends to respond in variations of input voltage in a manner that the motor during the stages of power correction does not overshoot in a particular direction. When the limit of output is below 5 KVA there is no need to use boost transformer at the output. Several varieties of Servo controlled voltage stabilizer are available in the market which are used for commercial or industrial purposes. A point to be noted is that these stabilizers work on macro mechanism. With the…
Types of Switches [Explained] in detail

Types of Switches [Explained] in detail

Types of switches In an electronic along with an electrical system, the switch has a pivotal role. In a way it controls operation of a device, break or interrupt electronic circuit or can direct the flow of current to a different direction. Most of the electrical devices contain a switch where the device is switched on and off with it. Along with it the circuit operation is controlled with a switch and the user can connect or disconnect certain or whole parts with the aid of this electronic circuit. The types of switches are generally classified into two parts, electrical switch and mechanical switch. In fact, both types of switches find its use in electrical along with electronic systems. The…
Closed Loop System [Explained] in Detail

Closed Loop System [Explained] in Detail

What is a closed loop system ? You would need to understand the difference between open and closed loop system, so you would need to get down to the details. In case of open loop system, you can avail a set point of a system, and whatever is bound to come out will do so. No system in the world is stiff, which means that the output is bound to vary which depends upon the load. Closed loop depicts a situation where someone is watching the output and then the set point is adjusted to whatever form so that the desired output is achieved. Take an example of the gas pedal in your own car. From it to a car…